World Dia­betes Day is cel­e­brat­ed on Novem­ber 14. Take our test and find out if you are at risk of dia­betes and how to avoid this seri­ous dis­ease.

diabetes symptoms

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“Eat less sweets, oth­er­wise you will get dia­betes!” — moth­ers scare their daugh­ters prone to full­ness. How real is the rea­son for these expe­ri­ences?

How dangerous is diabetes

Type I dia­betes

There are two types of dia­betes. The first occurs main­ly in chil­dren and young peo­ple, and this dis­ease is most often detect­ed at the age of 16–24. The basis is the destruc­tion of beta cells of the pan­creas (they pro­duce insulin), which devel­ops in the event of a viral infec­tion (as a result of dis­eases such as measles, rubel­la, paroti­tis, etc.) or an attack of one’s own anti­bod­ies. With an absolute lack of insulin, glu­cose does not enter the cells, but remains in the blood. As a result, the cells starve and begin to break down fats, pro­duc­ing ketone bod­ies that oxi­dize the blood. This can lead to a coma! In such cas­es, life­long insulin injec­tions can­not be dis­pensed with.

Type II dia­betes

With type II dia­betes, every­thing is dif­fer­ent. In clas­sic cas­es, it devel­ops after the age of 40 in those whose weight devi­at­ed from the norm, and the fig­ure began to resem­ble an apple, after a fat fold appeared in the abdomen and waist. The body pro­duces enough insulin (and some­times the pan­creas even exceeds its pro­duc­tion plan), but the prob­lem is that tis­sues lose sen­si­tiv­i­ty to this impor­tant hor­mone. This is called insulin resis­tance.

Symptoms of diabetes

  • You suf­fer from weak­ness, fatigue, drowsi­ness.
  • You con­stant­ly want to eat, but at the same time you lose weight. Or, on the con­trary, she sud­den­ly gained 5 kg or more.
  • You are con­stant­ly thirsty and drink more than 3 liters of water a day.
  • Blood sug­ar lev­el above 5.5 mmol/l (to be giv­en on an emp­ty stom­ach).
  • Itchy skin both­ers, scratch­es and cuts take a long time to heal.
  • You go to the toi­let every 30–60 min­utes.
diabetes causes

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Diabetes test

1. How old are you?

Under 35 years old — 0 points;
From 35 to 44 years old — 1 point;
From 45 to 54 years old — 2 points;
From 55 to 64 years old — 3 points.

2. Do your rel­a­tives have dia­betes?

No — 0 points;
Yes, par­ents or brother/sister — 5 points;
Yes, a grand­par­ent, aunt/uncle or cousin has 3 points.

3. What is your waist cir­cum­fer­ence?

Less than 80 cm — 0 points;
81 cm and more — 3 points.

4. Did the blood test show that you have an ele­vat­ed blood glu­cose lev­el?

No — 0 points;
Yes — 5 points.

5. How often do you eat veg­eta­bles and fruits?

Dai­ly — 0 points;
From time to time — 1 point.

6. Have you ever been pre­scribed med­ica­tion for hyper­ten­sion?

No — 0 points;
Yes — 2 points.

7. Do you play sports 30 min­utes a day?

Yes — 0 points;
No — 2 points.

8. What is your BMI?

Up to 25 — 0 points;
From 26 and above — 3 points.

Your result

0–2 points: you are unlike­ly to be at risk of devel­op­ing type II dia­betes. Keep it up! There is no need for spe­cial pre­cau­tions — a healthy diet and phys­i­cal activ­i­ty are enough.

3–14 points: the risk of devel­op­ing type II dia­betes is neg­li­gi­ble. To reduce it, give up fat­ty food, main­tain a water bal­ance and do not for­get to con­trol your weight.

15–24 points: you are at risk. Review your lifestyle and under­go a com­pre­hen­sive exam­i­na­tion. By the way, tests (espe­cial­ly for glu­cose) must be tak­en on an emp­ty stom­ach, oth­er­wise the results will be smeared. Every­thing will have to be repeat­ed!

diabetes

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How to reduce the risk of developing diabetes

But there is good news: the risk of devel­op­ing type II dia­betes can be min­i­mized.

Fol­low the diet. Review the diet, espe­cial­ly if some­one close to you has suf­fered or is suf­fer­ing from excess weight, as well as if there is a ten­den­cy to be over­weight. It is bet­ter to eat 5 times a day in small por­tions in order to avoid large fluc­tu­a­tions of glu­cose in the blood. Lim­it car­bo­hy­drates — sug­ar, hon­ey, sweets, flour. Replace white bread with whole grain or bran bread. Spaghet­ti is made only from durum vari­eties of wheat (they do not make them smooth, unless, of course, they are not abused and sea­soned with but­ter).

And more often include dairy prod­ucts in the menu. Cal­ci­um, pro­teins, and fats con­tained in raw or sour milk not only pro­tect the body from type II dia­betes, but also help to lose weight, improve well-being, and at the same time reduce the like­li­hood of devel­op­ing hyper­ten­sion and coro­nary heart dis­ease.

Get test­ed. The most infor­ma­tive test is the gly­cat­ed hemo­glo­bin (HbA1C) test. It shows the aver­age blood sug­ar for three months. The norm is up to 6.0%.

Man­age your mood. When a per­son is under con­stant stress, his body is dom­i­nat­ed by hor­mones that increase the lev­el of sug­ar in the blood. Try to avoid con­tact with neg­a­tive peo­ple. If it is unavoid­able, con­trol your­self and keep calm. By the way, a great way to get rid of neg­a­tive emo­tions is phys­i­cal activ­i­ty. Join the gym, ride a bike, skip the ele­va­tor, dance or just walk. Keep in mind, the fat-burn­ing effect of walk­ing is no less than that of train­ing on sim­u­la­tors.

Quit smok­ing. Sci­en­tists have found that addic­tion to tobac­co increas­es the like­li­hood of devel­op­ing dia­betes and car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­eases. If you fol­low these rules and get reg­u­lar check-ups, you will reduce the risk of devel­op­ing dia­betes and you will always be in great shape.